Table 2:

Changes in clinical presentation during the COVID-19 restriction and postrestriction periods*

Clinical rating scalePeriod; mean score ± SDp value
n = 4425
n = 1291
n = 4132
Violence Sum2.3 (3.7)a2.7 (3.8)b2.4 (3.8)a0.001
Aggressive Behavior Scale1.6 (2.8)a1.8 (2.9)a1.7 (2.9)a0.1
Depressive Severity Index3.2 (3.5)a2.7 (3.4)b2.9 (3.5)b< 0.001
Positive Symptoms Scale–Long Version3.5 (4.6)a4.4 (5.2)b3.7 (4.6)a< 0.001
Social Withdrawal Scale4.8 (5.1)a4.0 (4.7)b4.2 (4.9)b< 0.001
Cognitive Performance Scale0.7 (1.3)a0.7 (1.2)a0.7 (1.2)a0.6
  • Note: SD = standard deviation.

  • * Table with F statistics is available in Appendix 1.

  • Means in a row not sharing superscripts (a,b,c) are significantly different from one another.

  • Violence Sum: 3 items scored from 0 (never) to 5 (in the previous 3 days); Aggressive Behavior Scale: 4 items scored from 0 (not exhibited) to 3 (exhibited daily); Depressive Severity Index: 5 items scored from 0 (not present) to 3 (present daily); Positive Symptoms Scale–Long Version: 8 items scored from 0 (not present) to 3 (present daily); Social Withdrawal Scale: 6 items scored from 0 (not present) to 3 (present daily); Cognitive Performance Scale: 4 items scored range from 0 (intact) to 6 (very severe impairment).