Table 3:

Study resource utilization and mean unit costs

ResourceRemdesivir group total resource use
n = 634
Usual care group total resource use
n = 647
Difference in total resource useUnit cost,* mean per resource use, $SD, $Total cost difference, between arms, $
Study-related drugs (unit cost size, standard/medium dose and duration)
 Remdesivir (US$2340 per 5-day course × Can$1.25 conversion)63406342925.0001 854 450.00
Other medications (unit cost size, standard/medium dose and duration)
 Ceftriaxone days (1 g, 1 g IV daily)§21142303−18914.834.042808.85
 Azithromycin IV days (500-mg vials, 500 mg × 1, then 250 mg IV daily)§25002632−1330.980.05−129.87
 Piperacillin–tazobactam days (3.375-g vials, 3.375 g IV every 6 hr)§51566814−165829.693.67−12 300.53
 Vancomycin days (500-mg vials, 15 mg/kg × 85-kg load, then 1g IV every 12 hr)§214120449777.0614.891861.46
 Imipenem–cilastatin days (500-mg vials, 500 mg IV every 6 hr)§57467929−218288.3310.01−48 187.67
 Dexamethasone IV doses (10-mg vials)18 20725 564−73573.990.94−15 771.40
 Dexamethasone PO doses (4-mg tablets)25 31529 171−38560.400.17−1061.00
 Hydrocortisone IV doses (100-mg vials)34 78027 79069903.900.9030 471.16
 Methylprednisolone IV doses (100-mg vials)600711 410−540313.430−72 540.14
 Prednisone PO doses (5-mg tablets)603814 747−87100.040.01−337.78
 Micafungin IV days (100-mg vial, 200 mg IV × 1, then 100 mg IV daily)§43034585196.0008820.00
 Tocilizumab IV days (400-mg vial, 400 mg × 1)29281212.0128.88279.76
 Phenytoin IV (100-mg vial, 15 mg/kg IV load, then 100 mg IV every 8 hr)0131−1316.320.14−819.13
 Amiodarone IV (200-mg vial, 1 mg/min × 18 h, then 0.5 mg/min × 30 h)312351−390.370−14.45
 Dalteparin VTE (DVT/PE) IV (125 units/kg × 85 kg)310−752.4737.67−4613.73
 Dobutamine IV days (2.5 μg/kg/min IV)§4517283.420.2994.05
 Norepinephrine IV days (4-mg vials, 0.05 μg/kg/min)§399448−494.110.36−159.08
 Norepinephrine IV days (4-mg vials, 0.15 μg/kg/min)§191323−13212.340.36−1564.67
 Propofol IV days (200-mg vials, 50 μg/kg/min)§14101985−575356.920−205 228.08
 Midazolam IV days (5-mg vials, 5 mg/h)§14101985−575100.370.12−55 538.93
 Hydromorphone IV days (2-mg vials, 2 mg/h)§14101985−57545.290.25−26 385.20
 Rocuronium IV days (50-mg vial, 10 μg/kg/min)§399477−78374.320.76−28 645.42
Laboratories, investigations and radiology (per test)
 Complete blood count§77477823−767.815.991065.24
 Arterial blood gas§46806090−141063.2190.59−116 961.05
 Chest radiograph§9941019−2528.0518.72−666.93
 SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal/nasal swab730750−20125.000−2500.00
 SARS-CoV-2 throat swab6792−25125.000−3125.00
 Sputum microbiology664675−1118.0211.03−6.13
 Bronchoalveolar lavage culture64218.5410.53279.65
 Viral nucleic acid test969986−1787.500−875.00
 CT chest§310−7135.8668.87−1373.02
 CT head§844124.3261.40−352.26
 Transthoracic echocardiogram000160.3752.320
 ICU physician (per day)23403045−705254.70128.22−179 562.98
 Ward physician (per day)5388477361548.7316.3029 966.92
 ICU nurse (1:1 nurse/patient ratio, per day)23403045−705975.705.63−740 902.11
 Ward nurse (1:4 nurse/patient ratio, per day)53884773615228.724.69144 619.57
 Pharmacist (per hour per day)§23403045−70546.182.44−32 559.09
 Respiratory therapist (per hour)§23403045−70534.936.45−24 626.71
 Physical therapist (per hour)§23403045−70537.375.12−26 349.26
 Social work (per hour)§23403045−70537.095.63−26 147.48
 Dietician (per hour)§23403045−70538.385.09−27 059.45
 Unit clerk (per hour)§23403045−70528.645.63−20 194.58
Procedures and surgeries
 Noninvasive ventilation days234327−93111.5855.62−9403.60
 IMV days14101985−575116.0355.02−41 360.57
 Proning days9061282−37664.800−24 364.80
 Arterial catheterization§241262−2137.868.86−905.76
 Central venous catheterization§104143−3942.7515.19−1763.87
 Chest tube insertions§752105.0239.51142.75
 Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation days59−4617.14439.34−9899.84
 Intermittent hemodialysis central venous catheterization25223121.5265.72570.16
 Dialysis days204239−35144.4172.18−4157.73
 Pulmonary vasodilators (iNO) days1847−293000.000−87 000.00
Hoteling costs
 ICU days23403045−7053495.241438.80−2 099 573.60
 High dependency unit days195143495.241438.8074 991.68
 Ward days538847736151045.94358.91819 284.92
  • Note: CT = computed tomography, DVT = deep vein thrombosis, ICU = intensive care unit, IMV = invasive mechanical ventilation, iNO = inhaled nitric oxide, IV = intravenous, PE = pulmonary embolism, PO = by mouth, SD = standard deviation, VTE = venous thromboembolism.

  • * Sources: provincial (British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Newfoundland and Labrador) databases (formularies, schedule of benefits), Sunnybrook Hospital/Research Institute (mean unit costs across all jurisdictions).

  • Standard deviation is for the unit cost for each line-item between the various jurisdictions (provincial in Canada).

  • Resource use directly drawn from CATCO case-report form.

  • § Assumption used to estimate resource utilization of line-item.

  • Standard weight-based dosing assumption (85 kg).