Table 4:

Extrapulmonary complications among patients hospitalized with COVID-19

Complications and managementNo. (%)*
All patients
n = 100
Non-ICU patients
n = 68
ICU patients
n = 32
Neurologic complications
 Ischemic stroke3/26 (11.5)1/10 (10.0)2/16 (12.5)
 Intracranial hemorrhage6/26 (23.1)06/16 (37.5)
Thrombotic complications and therapies
 Deep venous thrombosis on ultrasonography2/13 (15.4)02/9 (22.2)
 Pulmonary embolism on CTPA6/26 (23.1)3/12 (25.0)3/14 (21.4)
 Received therapeutic anticoagulation11/100 (11.0)3/68 (4.4)8/32 (25.0)
  Started for presumed hypercoagulable state from COVID-193/100 (3.0)03/32 (9.4)
  Started for confirmed venous thromboembolism7/100 (7.0)3/68 (4.4)4/32 (12.5)
  Started for VV-ECMO circuit1/100 (1.0)01/32 (3.1)
Cardiac and hemodynamic complications and therapies
 Received vasopressors or inotropesNANA24/32 (75.0)
 Duration of vasopressors or inotropes, d, median (IQR)NANAn = 24
9 (3.75–11.75)
 Corticosteroids for hemodynamic shock4/100 (4.0)04/32 (12.5)
Echocardiography findings
 Depressed LVEF (30%–50%)2/29 (6.9)0/5 (0)2/24 (8.3)
 Severely depressed LVEF (< 30%)2/29 (6.9)1/5 (20.0)1/24 (4.2)
 Reduced RV systolic function5/29 (17.2)1/5 (20.0)3/24 (12.5)
 Pulmonary hypertension9/29 (31.0)2/5 (40.0)7/24 (29.2)
 Pericardial effusion1/29 (3.4)0/5 (0)1/24 (4.2)
Renal complications and therapies
 Acute kidney injury27/100 (27.0)11/68 (16.2)16/32 (50.0)
 Received CRRTNANA5/32 (15.6)
 Duration of CRRT, median (IQR)NANA4 (2.0–6.5)
 Highest AKIN stage
  Stage I16/100 (16.0)9/68 (13.2)7/32 (21.9)
  Stage II5/100 (5.0)05/32 (15.6)
  Stage III6/100 (6.0)2/68 (2.9)4/32 (12.5)
Secondary infections
 Positive respiratory culture (bacterial or fungal)13/100 (13.0)013/32 (40.6)
 Positive blood culture8/100 (8.0)2/68 (2.9)6/32 (18.8)
 Positive urine culture15/100 (15.0)4/68 (5.9)11/32 (34.4)
Clostridioides difficile1/100 (1.0)1/68 (1.5)0
  • Note: AKIN = Acute Kidney Injury Network, CTPA = computed tomography pulmonary angiography, CRRT = continuous renal replacement therapy, ICU = intensive care unit, IQR = interquartile range, LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction, NA = not applicable, RV = right ventricular, SD = standard deviation, VV-ECMO = venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

  • * Unless stated otherwise.

  • Results reflect echocardiography done during hospitalization.

  • Defined by criteria of the Acute Kidney Injury Network.10