Table 3:

Rate ratios for visits to the emergency department among community-dwelling people with dementia in the COVID-19 pandemic period and the historical period in Ontario, by urgency and chapter from the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (2019–2021)

Reason for visitRR (95% CI)
At lowest weekly rate during pandemic period*At latest week during pandemic period*
Overall0.50 (0.47–0.53)0.88 (0.83–0.92)
Urgency
 Nonurgent0.33 (0.28–0.39)0.68 (0.59–0.79)
 Urgent0.51 (0.48–0.55)0.91 (0.86–0.96)
ICD-10-CA chapter
 Infections0.38 (0.25–0.56)0.84 (0.61–1.16)
 Neoplasms0.17 (0.04–0.74)0.51 (0.19–1.37)
 Blood diseases0.69 (0.36–1.31)0.48 (0.28–0.82)
 Endocrine diseases0.35 (0.22–0.54)1.05 (0.76–1.46)
 Mental and behavioural disorders0.44 (0.34–0.56)1.05 (0.85–1.30)
  Dementia0.40 (0.27–0.60)1.30 (0.93–1.81)
  Delirium0.49 (0.30–0.79)0.91 (0.64–1.31)
 Nervous system diseases0.36 (0.21–0.60)1.01 (0.69–1.48)
 Eye diseases0.38 (0.15–0.96)0.94 (0.53–1.68)
 Ear diseases0.11 (0.03–0.48)1.03 (0.44–2.37)
 Circulatory diseases0.51 (0.41–0.65)0.74 (0.60–0.91)
  Cardiac diseases (acute myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure)0.52 (0.38–0.72)0.58 (0.44–0.78)
 Respiratory diseases0.41 (0.33–0.53)0.64 (0.51–0.80)
  Influenza, pneumonia, and chronic lower respiratory infections0.38 (0.28–0.50)0.59 (0.45–0.77)
  COPD0.33 (0.20–0.56)0.76 (0.49–1.18)
 Digestive diseases0.39 (0.30–0.52)0.90 (0.71–1.13)
 Skin diseases0.35 (0.22–0.55)0.86 (0.60–1.24)
 Musculoskeletal diseases0.29 (0.22–0.40)0.81 (0.64–1.03)
 Genitourinary diseases0.56 (0.43–0.72)0.88 (0.72–1.08)
  Kidney or urinary tract infection0.36 (0.26–0.50)0.83 (0.65–1.06)
 Signs, symptoms and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings0.46 (0.41–0.52)0.86 (0.77–0.95)
  Signs and symptoms involving cognition0.45 (0.32–0.63)0.83 (0.63–1.08)
 Injuries and poisoning0.48 (0.41–0.55)0.86 (0.76–0.97)
  Fall-related injuries0.56 (0.47–0.66)0.85 (0.73–0.98)
  Non-fall-related injuries0.38 (0.25–0.58)0.74 (0.54–1.03)
 Factors influencing health status0.66 (0.49–0.89)1.09 (0.82–1.44)
Other
 Adverse drug reactions0.30 (0.13–0.65)0.91 (0.47–1.79)
  • Note: CI = confidence interval, COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ICD-10-CA = Canadian version of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, RR = rate ratio. Low-frequency ICD-10 chapters are not shown (i.e., pregnancy, certain conditions originating in the perinatal period, congenital malformations, and external causes of morbidity and mortality).

  • * The week of the lowest rate is based on the lowest rate during the pandemic period (Mar. 1, 2020 to Feb. 21, 2021) compared with equivalent weeks during the historical period (Mar. 3, 2019 to Feb. 23, 2020). The latest weekly rate is as of the week of Feb. 21, 2021 (pandemic period) compared with the week of Feb. 23, 2020 (historical period).

  • Dementia codes include F00–F03, G30.