Table 2:

Summary of findings from qualitative studies1,2*

StudyWell-being domainLevelNo. and type of studentsInterventionAnalysisThemes or theoryAuthor findings from original study
Undergraduate medical students
Brown et al., 201830Intellectual, occupationalIndividual123; first-year undergraduate medical studentsProgram for Improvement in Medical Education for engagement in quality improvement trainingThematicContinuous support; genuine interest in improving medical education; team-based learning and problem solving; regular project feedback; access to education resources for quality improvementMedical education is an appropriate setting to teach preclerkship medical students about quality improvement, which might lead to increased knowledge of quality improvement.
Byszewski et al., 201732Intellectual, occupationalIndividual93; undergraduate medical studentsMultimedia podcast resource on what a geriatric specialty entailsThematicStudents found the podcast a creative method to present a specialty and suggested creating podcasts for other medical fields; students provided suggestions for including patient testimonials and “A day in the life of …”A multimedia podcast for medical students can raise awareness of geriatric medicine as a potential career choice and can be used as a novel multimedia approach for a variety of career options when considering residency programs.
Cadieux et al., 201733Intellectual, occupationalSystem62; first-year undergraduate medical studentsLeadership course grounded in business pedagogyThematicUnderstanding change; effective teamwork; leading in patient safety; leadership in actionLeadership in medical education should be applicable to the learner’s stage of training and may be better supported if leadership is framed as a competency throughout their career.
Chew et al., 201236Intellectual, occupationalIndividual18; second-year undergraduate medical studentsPreclerkship HIV electiveThematicEnthusiasm for small group sessions; clinical observerships; community agency placements; diversity of topics coveredStudent-run initiatives can supplement medical curriculum content and promote student leadership and interest, community partnerships, and faculty mentorship.
Ellaway et al., 201445Social, intellectualSystem101; first-year undergraduate medical studentsMobile device programGrounded theoryMobile devices augment, but are not replacements for, laptop computers, and mobile devices in medical education are perceived as a tool and source of supportMedical learners use mobile devices depending on the learning culture and contexts of their specific medical programs and education ecologies.
Law et al., 201966Intellectual, occupationalIndividual17; undergraduate medical studentsComputer programming certificate courseThematicValue of the course; potential application of learningComputer science and medicine would benefit from enhanced 2-way communication when developing technology for use in medicine.
Lynch et al., 201468Social, intellectualIndividual4; undergraduate medical studentsLinking students from North America and Europe with a peer-to-peer learning approachThematicPeer connection; trust in data veracity; aid to clinical learning processConnecting students across continents in a community of peer-to-peer learning encourages peer cooperation with potential to disseminate key clinical learnings.
Welsher et al., 201888IntellectualIndividual23; preclerkship undergraduate medical studentsVideo-based observational practice communities that augment simulation-based skill education and connect geographically distributed learnersThematicEase of use; technical knowledge; versatile and accessible; observational tools beneficial to learning; desire for more networked, observational learning activitiesVideo-based observational practice communities are feasible to support simulation-based learning of clinical skills in a distributed group of health professional trainees.
Yeung et al., 201790Social, intellectualIndividual20; second-year undergraduate medical studentsLongitudinal Students as Teachers programThematicProgram increased perceived knowledge and provided students with opportunities to practice teaching and to provide and receive feedback, and to reflect on their practiceEarly exposure to medical education theories allows opportunity to apply theories practically through ongoing teaching and feedback sessions that include reflective exercises.
Postgraduate medical students
Campagna-Vaillancourt et al., 201434SocialProgram45; otolaryngology–head and neck surgeryMultiple Mini Interview (MMI) for the selection of applicants to residencyThematicMeet more staff; less stressful; multiple first impressions; different aspects of personality; objective and fair; team assessmentUsing the MMI for admission to a residency program has good acceptability and reliability, and is feasible.
Malhotra et al., 200869Mental, intellectualProgram12; internal medicineMini Clinical Evaluation ExercisePhenomenologicalEducation; assessment; exam preparationThe mini Clinical Evaluation Exercise is anxiety provoking at first, but may provide insight into clinical competence over time.
Myden et al., 201274Intellectual, occupationalProgram6; orthopedicsComputer-assisted surgery simulationsThematicConfidence; awareness; deepening knowledge; changed perspectivesHigh-impact educational interventions endorsing cognitive flexibility increases confidence, changes awareness, and deepens knowledge and perspectives.
Sachedina et al., 201977OccupationalIndividual17; cardiac critical careCode Blue Simulation Program (CBSP)ThematicThe CBSP is a useful tool to help prepare residents to serve as code blue learners and the authenticity of the CBSP cases was usefulThe CBSP enhanced resident preparedness. Differences between simulated and real codes should be addressed to enhance fidelity.
Sukhera et al., 201883MentalSystem10; psychiatryMental illness implicit association testGrounded theoryVulnerability provoked tension between personal and professional identities reconciled through striving for ideal while acknowledging the actualAddressing implicit bias among health professionals is influenced by the process of recognizing and managing biases.
Tait et al., 201384Mental, intellectual, occupationalIndividual7; family medicine, psychiatryThe Dignity InterviewThematicExperience of the interview; patient as teacher; residents reflecting on their own lives; resident reflections on palliative or end-of-life care education; physician role in conflictConversations with dying patients and soliciting a patient’s story are poorly taught and modelled in medical education.
Tan et al., 201385Social, occupationalProgram130; family medicineOnline virtual patient clinical case in palliative careThematicUseful content; beneficial teaching modality; realism of case; awkward navigation; worried about missing key points in the caseThe online virtual patient case in palliative care is a useful teaching tool to address need for increased formal palliative care experience in medical education.
  • * Reported as per the Summary of Qualitative Findings Table structure.26

  • Well-being domains include social, mental, physical, intellectual or occupational well-being. Levels include individual, program or system level.