Table 1:

Features of FRAX and CAROC fracture risk calculators

Clinical risk factorsAge (40–90 yr)Age (> 50 yr)
Previous fracture in adulthoodFractures since age 40
Parent fractured hip
Current smoking
Glucocorticoid useGlucocorticoid use§
Rheumatoid arthritis
Secondary osteoporosis
Consumes ≥ 3 units alcohol per day
Bone mineral densityFemoral neck BMD optionalFemoral neck BMD required
Other considerationsIncorporates competing risk of mortalityNo competing risk of mortality
Different algorithms can be used for differentNo different algorithms for different ethnicities
ethnicities and countries
Involves interactions between variablesNo interactions between individual variables
Type of fractures predictedHip fracture within 10 years
Major osteoporotic fracture within 10 yearsOsteoporotic fracture within 10 years
  • Note: BMD = bone mineral density, CAROC = Canadian Association of Radiologists and Osteoporosis Canada, FRAX = Fracture Risk Assessment Tool.

  • * FRAX is available at

  • CAROC is available at

  • FRAX: Exposed to oral glucocorticoids for more than 3 months at a dose of prednisolone of 5 mg daily or more or current use.

  • § CAROC: History of glucocorticoid use for 3 months or more in the past 1 year at 7.5 mg prednisone equivalent.

  • If fracture risk is low or undefined based on femoral neck BMD, and T-score is ≤ −2.5 at either lumbar spine or total hip, fracture risk is increased to moderate.