Table 1:

Characteristics of high and lower antibiotic and opioid initiators and their practices

CharacteristicAntibiotic initiators; no. (%) of physicians*Opioid initiators; no. (%) of physicians*
Lowest 75%
n = 7496
Highest 25%
n = 2498
Lowest 75%
n = 7496
Highest 25%
n = 2498
Physicians
Median no. of daily patient visits
 < 10528 (7.0)194 (7.8)494 (6.6)228 (9.1)
 10–203746 (50.0)1068 (42.8)3814 (50.9)1000 (40.0)
 > 203222 (43.0)1236 (49.5)3188 (42.5)1270 (50.8)
Age, median (IQR), yr53 (44–61)53 (44–61)51 (42–59)58 (49–66)
Sex
 Female3533 (47.1)933 (37.3)3784 (50.5)682 (27.3)
 Male3963 (52.9)1565 (62.7)3712 (49.5)1816 (72.7)
Years since medical graduation
 < 111644 (21.9)482 (19.3)1830 (24.4)296 (11.8)
 11–242173 (29.0)767 (30.7)2410 (32.2)530 (21.2)
 > 243679 (49.1)1249 (50.0)3256 (43.4)1672 (66.9)
Country of medical school
 Canada/United States4661 (62.2)1527 (61.1)4525 (60.4)1663 (66.6)
 Other1703 (22.7)620 (24.8)1657 (22.1)666 (26.7)
 Unknown1132 (15.1)351 (14.0)1314 (17.5)169 (6.8)
Rurality
 Urban6791 (90.6)2296 (91.9)6891 (91.9)2196 (87.9)
 Rural705 (9.4)202 (8.1)605 (8.1)302 (12.1)
Emergency department visits, mean ± SD, %8.35 ± 22.620.9 ± 35.114.03 ± 29.33.85 ± 14.8
Long-term care visits, mean ± SD, %2.44 ± 9.91.59 ± 8.71.03 ± 4.85.81 ± 15.2
Roster size, median (IQR)1101 (752–1540)1080 (616–1561)1026 (683–1448)1303 (893–1729)
Practices
Age group, mean ± SD, yr
 < 1815.6 ± 7.117.7 ± 7.017.1 ± 7.1131 ± 6.4
 18–6460.5 ± 10.061.3 ± 9.662.0 ± 9.056.7 ± 11.3
 ≥ 6524.0 ± 12.421.0 ± 11.420.9 ± 10.230.2 ± 14.7
Female sex, mean ± SD, %57.1 ± 9.156.1 ± 6.957.7 ± 8.554.1 ± 8.2
Neighbourhood income quintile of patient population
 Low (1–3)6141 (81.9)2050 (82.1)5942 (79.3)2249 (90.0)
 High (4–5)1355 (18.1)448 (17.9)1554 (20.7)249 (10.0)
Comorbidities in previous 2 yr, mean ± SD, %
 Acute myocardial infarction0.5 ± 0.50.5 ± 0.40.5 ± 0.40.7 ± 0.6
 Congestive heart failure0.9 ± 0.90.8 ± 0.70.8 ± 0.81.1 ± 1.1
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease1.2 ± 0.81.1 ± 0.71.1 ± 0.71.4 ± 0.9
 Diabetes1.6 ± 0.81.4 ± 0.61.4 ± 0.71.7 ± 0.8
 Hypertension2.3 ± 0.92.1 ± 0.82.2 ± 0.82.4 ± 1.0
 Asthma0.9 ± 0.51.1 ± 0.51.0 ± 0.50.8 ± 0.5
 Mental health condition20.6 ± 7.820.8 ± 6.220.6 ± 6.920.8 ± 8.9
Health care use in previous 2 yr, mean ± SD, %
 Hospital admission14.6 ± 6.315.0 ± 6.014.4 ± 5.815.6 ± 7.3
 Emergency department visit41.9 ± 12.246.1 ± 13.742.7 ± 12.843.8 ± 12.5
  • Note: IQR = interquartile range, SD = standard deviation.

  • * Except where noted otherwise.