Table 2:

Measures of association of included studies examining the association between type 2 diabetes and the risk of community-acquired pneumonia

StudyNo. events/ no. exposedNo. events/ no. unexposedMeasure of associationUnadjusted estimate (95% CI)Adjusted estimate (95% CI)Covariates (adjusted for or matched)
Cohort studies
Jackson et al. 200412HR1.52 (1.29–1.78)Age, sex, smoking status, CHF, ischemic heart disease, cancer, dementia, stroke, COPD, asthma, renal disease, use of prednisone or other immunosuppressive medication, no. of outpatient visits in the previous year, hospital admission for pneumonia in in the previous year, home oxygen therapy, receipt of home health care
Muller et al. 20053OR1.31 (1.15–1.50)1.30 (1.11–1.52)Age, sex, asthma, pulmonary disease (including tuberculosis, acute bronchitis and asthma), insurance type, cardiovascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, neurologic disease
O’Meara et al. 200513Risk ratio1.34 (1.05–1.70)Age, race, education level, smoking status, prior vaccination for pneumonia, vaccination for influenza in the previous year, FEV1, FVC, maximal inspiratory pressure, 3MSE score, history of: MI, angina pectoris, CAD, claudication, CHF, CVA, COPD, pneumonia
Benfield et al. 2007590/3531104/9710HR2.55 (1.86–3.29)1.75 (1.23–2.48)Age, sex, smoking status, SES (education, income), cholesterol, triacylglycerol, hypertension, physical activity, lung function
Ehrlich et al. 201014HR1.92 (1.84–1.99)Age, sex, smoking status, race or ethnicity, education, alcohol, BMI, no. of outpatient visits occurring in the 12 mo before baseline
Hamilton et al. 20136181/1294435/5156Rate ratio1.86 (1.55–2.21)
Seminog and Goldacre 201310 (LHES)Rate ratio1.68 (1.65–1.71)Age, sex, the time period in single calendar years, SES (region of residence deprivation score)
Seminog and Goldacre 201310 (ORLS1)Rate ratio1.87 (1.72–2.04)Age, sex, the time period in single calendar years, SES (district of residence)
Seminog and Goldacre 201310 (ORLS2)Rate ratio1.76 (1.60–1.92)Age, sex, the time period in single calendar years, SES (district of residence)
Hine et al. 2017834 278*613 052OR1.43 (1.18–1.74)Age, sex, smoking status, SES, comorbidities, general practice
López-de-Andrés et al. 201715NR/223 715NR/677 621Rate ratio1.66 (1.65–1.67)Age, sex, year of discharge
Ray et al. 2017167/4715/292OR3.23 (1.24–8.38)
Williams et al. 201717OR1.74 (1.44–2.10)Age, sex, smoking status, BMI, prior diagnosis of pneumonia, exacerbation frequency, pharmacotherapy, comorbidities, GOLD stage
Case–control studies
Farr et al. 200018OR2.50 (0.34–14.11)
Thomsen et al. 2004953/351545/6227OR1.9 (1.4–2.6)1.5 (1.1–2.0)Age (matched), sex (matched), Charlson Comorbidity Index score, alcohol-related disease
van de Garde et al. 200619134/393974/4532OR1.88 (1.66–2.10)
Kornum et al. 200874489/32 97529 750/ 343 654OR1.68 (1.62–1.74)1.26 (1.21–1.31)Age (matched), sex (matched), SES (marital status, degree of urbanization)
  • Note: BMI = body mass index, CAD = coronary artery disease, CHF = congestive heart failure, CI = confidence interval, COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CVA = cerebrovascular accident, FEV1 = forced expiratory volume in 1 second, FVC = forced vital capacity, GOLD = Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease, HR = hazard ratio, LHES = Linked English Hospital Episodes Statistics, MI = myocardial infarction, NR = not reported, OR = odds ratio, ORLS = Oxford Record Linkage Study, SES = socioeconomic status, 3MSE = Modified Mini-Mental State Examination.

  • * Total no. of exposed patients.

  • Total no. of unexposed patients.