Table 1:

Characteristics of studies examining the association between type 2 diabetes and the risk of community-acquired pneumonia

Author, yearCountryStudy designSample sizeMean age, yr (SD)*Male, %ExposurePrimary outcomeMean duration of follow-up, yr
Cohort studies
Jackson et al. 200412USRetrospective cohort46 237NR42.0DiabetesHospital admission for CAP3
Muller et al. 20053NetherlandsProspective cohort26 32865.7 (12.7)/63.1 (13.4)46.1/39.1Type 2 diabetesPneumonia1
O’Meara et al. 200513USProspective cohort588875.0/72.6§42.3DiabetesHospital admission for pneumonia10.7
Benfield et al. 20075DenmarkRetrospective cohort10 06367.8/60.7NRDiabetesHospital admission for pneumonia7
Ehrlich et al. 201014USRetrospective cohort121 866§57.250.1DiabetesHospital admission for pneumoniaNR
Hamilton et al. 20136AustraliaProspective cohort645063.6/66.1**48.8/NRType 2 diabetesHospital admission for pneumonia12.06
Seminog and Goldacre 201310 (LHES)UKRetrospective cohort11 220 54564NRDiabetesPneumonia4
Seminog and Goldacre 201310 (ORLS1)UKRetrospective cohort640 54964NRDiabetesPneumonia35
Seminog and Goldacre 201310 (ORLS2)UKRetrospective cohort508 96562NRDiabetesPneumonia3
Hine et al. 20178UKRetrospective cohort647 33067.0/46.0††49.1Type 2 diabetesPneumonia1
López-de-Andrés et al. 201715SpainRetrospective cohort901 13677.1 (10.5)60.1Type 2 diabetesHospital admission for CAP9
Ray et al. 201716USRetrospective cohort41147.0 (16.3)73.8DiabetesPneumoniaNR
Williams et al. 201717UKRetrospective cohort14 51370.3 (10.8)53.6DiabetesCAP5
Case–control studies
Farr et al. 200018UKPopulation-based case–control55545.246.1DiabetesPneumoniaNR
Thomsen et al. 20049DenmarkPopulation-based case–control657867 (18–94)/67 (17–94)‡‡47.3Type 2 diabetesCAP9
van de Garde et al. 200619NetherlandsPopulation-based case–control49256755.0DiabetesHospital admission for CAPNR
Kornum et al. 20087DenmarkPopulation-based case–control376 62974 (61–82)/74 (61–82)§§52.9Type 2 diabetesHospital admission for pneumoniaNR
  • Note: CAP = community-acquired pneumonia, LHES = Linked English Hospital Episodes Statistics, NR = not reported, ORLS = Oxford Record Linkage Study, SD = standard deviation, UK = United Kingdom, US = United States.

  • * For entire population, unless otherwise specified.

  • For entire population, unless otherwise specified.

  • Diabetes/no diabetes.

  • § Subcohort of patients for whom diabetes status was evaluated.

  • Median.

  • ** Admitted to hospital/not admitted to hospital.

  • †† Median: diabetes/no diabetes.

  • ‡‡ Median (full range): cases/controls.

  • §§ Median (interquartile range): cases/controls.