Table 3:

Key participant perceptions regarding the use of artificial intelligence in health care research

ConceptParticipant perceptions
  • Half of participants felt that each person must consent to allow his or her data to be used in research

  • Most were against private companies’ obtaining data without individual consent

  • Most said that even deidentified data should not be sold to private companies without consent

  • Deidentification was believed by most participants to be the removal of name, social insurance number, date of birth, address, health card number

  • Some participants felt that the loss of privacy is an acceptable sacrifice for the prospect of benefit to the larger population

  • Most participants felt that conditions under which individuals provide consent ought to be respected (e.g., use of data for health research v. marketing purposes)

  • All providers felt that receiving health information is a privilege given its highly sensitive nature

  • Some participants accepted allocation of health resources via computerized output

  • Half felt it inappropriate to delegate responsibility to computers

  • One provider likened delegation of responsibility to computers to inappropriate treatment; the other providers advocated for shared decisions

  • Some participants indicated media as a key mechanism for accountability

  • Some participants indicated skepticism that institutions and companies could be held accountable

Unintended consequences/ harms
  • Most participants accepted that mistakes happen

  • All stressed the need for transparency, disclosure and reparations

  • Some felt that transparency and publication prevent others from repeating the mistake

  • Most participants felt that health care institutions are highly trusted organizations

  • Most participants felt that physicians and other health care providers are entrusted with carrying out research with health data

Public engagement
  • Some participants felt that the public had a duty to be involved in research in some way

  • Most were unsure how specifically to have a voice in medical research