Table 4:

Risk of bias assessment with the Cochrane risk of bias tool15

InvestigatorRandom sequence generationAllocation concealmentBlinding of participants and personnelBlinding of outcome assessmentIncomplete outcome data (> 10%)Selective outcome reporting*
Bereznicki et al.18??NA
Corson et al.19??+?NA
de Jong et al.20?+?NA
Fu et al.21??++NA
Galbreath et al.22??++?NA
Gerber et al.23?+?NA
Green et al.24+NA
Hoffman et al.25????NA
Israel et al.26??NA
McCarren et al.27?++NA
Phillips et al.29??+??NA
Piazza et al.30+?NA
Qureshi et al.31+?NA
Skinner et al.32??+?NA
Stewart et al.28+NA
Vestbo et al.33+?+NA
Wolf et al.34??+??NA
  • Note: EHR = electronic health record, NA = nonapplicable, − = low risk of bias, ? = unclear risk of bias, + = high risk of bias.

  • * Since only the publication identified in our literature search was assessed (there was no systematic protocol search and no searching for further manuscripts related to that study), we did not consider this item.

  • The completeness of outcome data based on the electronic health record (secondary study outcome) was perfect (0% missing data).