Table 3:

Costs of randomized controlled trials supported by electronic health records*

Type of data extraction from EHR source; investigatorEHR source preexistingIntervention integrated during routine care (no additional staff needed)Total trial cost, US$No. of patientsCost per patient, US$
Bereznicki et al.,18 2008YesYes67 750††155144
Green et al.,24 2013YesNo2 800 000§5000560
Piazza et al.,30 2013UnclearNo5 026 00025132000
Wolf et al.,34 2005YesYes86 753**197844
Unclear whether automatic or manual
McCarren et al.,27 2013YesYes69 300††220315
  • Note: EHR = electronic health record.

  • * In all trials, the EHR was used for recruitment (retrospective) and outcome assessment (all with EHR alone).

  • As reported by authors for these costs data.

  • Total received funding, including $42 157 for staff costs for the duration of the project, $6132 for a consultant programmer (for software development), $15 330 for pharmacy payments and $6132 for nonsalary costs such as printing, postage and travel.

  • § Total received funding.

  • Study costs were $2000 per patient and included costs of the trial start-up and close out.

  • ** Total cost of the colorectal cancer screening promotional effort (intervention only).

  • †† Total received funding. “Most of the [working] time was donated.”