Table 1:

Characteristics of randomized controlled trials published in English between January 2000 and Sept. 13, 2017 that used electronic health records

CharacteristicNo. (%) of trials*
Overall
n = 189
EHR-evaluating
n = 172
EHR-supported
n = 17
EHR for intervention172 (91.0)172 (100.0)
 Computerized physician order entry system or clinical decision-support system128 (67.7)128 (74.4)
 Telehealth14 (7.4)14 (8.1)
 Personal health record26 (13.8)26 (15.1)
 Electronic patient-reported outcomes4 (2.1)4 (2.3)
EHR for outcome measurement158 (83.6)143 (83.1)15 (88)
EHR for patient recruitment105 (55.6)91 (52.9)14 (82)
Country/region
 North America153 (81.0)140 (81.4)13 (76)
 United Kingdom9 (4.8)7 (4.1)2 (12)
 Continental Europe15 (7.9)14 (8.1)1 (6)
 Other12 (6.3)11 (6.4)1 (6)
Cluster RCT64 (33.9)61 (35.5)3 (18)
Unit of randomization
 Clinician49 (25.9)46 (26.7)3 (18)
 Patient76 (40.2)65 (37.8)11 (65)
 Pharmacy1 (0.5)1 (0.6)0 (0)
 Practice/clinic54 (28.6)51 (29.6)3 (18)
 Unit/floor9 (4.8)9 (5.2)0 (0)
Publication year, median (IQR)2012 (2009–2014)2012 (2009–2014)2013 (2010–2013)
Sample size, median (IQR)
 Total89 (24–732)80 (22–513)732 (73–2513)
 Cluster RCTs excluded239 (57–1187)254 (60–1187)900 (111–3075)
 Cluster RCTs only24 (12–47)24 (12–52)18 (12–24)
Blinding
 Open label27 (14.3)23 (13.4)4 (24)
 Single-blinded19 (10.0)18 (10.5)1 (6)
 Double-blinded7 (3.7)6 (3.5)1 (6)
 Outcome assessment blinding35 (18.5)30 (17.4)5 (29)
 Not reported101 (53.4)95 (55.2)6 (35)
  • Note: EHR = electronic health record, IQR = interquartile range, RCT = randomized controlled trial.

  • * Except where noted otherwise.

  • Includes China, Japan, Taiwan, Iran, India, Pakistan, Lebanon, Australia and Kenya.