Table 3:

Most important benefits, challenges and guiding ethical principles related to the implementation of noninvasive prenatal testing

FactorParticipants, %Change, % (R3 – R2)
1. No risk of miscarriage83.7+13.0
2. Noninvasiveness63.3+1.2
3. Results available earlier in the pregnancy53.1+6.3
4. Requires only a blood draw42.9+5.0
5. Increased accuracy30.6+8.2
6. Enhances prospective parents’ ability to prepare24.5−11.7
7. Decreases anxiety for prospective parents16.3−7.8
8. Provides more information potentially useful for decision-making16.3−25.1
9. Answers specific needs10.2−3.6
10. Potential to expand conditions tested4.1−8.0
1. Adequate counselling of patients79.6+19.3
2. Pressure to test67.3+10.4
3. Adequate education of health professionals65.3+10.1
4. Discrimination against people with disabilities59.2+10.9
5. Pressure to terminate55.1+10.3
6. Eugenics46.9+2.1
7. Potential decrease in social support for people with disabilities44.9+1.8
8. Routinization of prenatal testing38.8+0.9
9. Stigmatization of the parents of children living with the tested conditions38.8−0.9
10. Accuracy of the test34.7−1.5
11. Decrease in social diversity34.7+5.4
12. Adequate professional guidelines32.7−5.2
13. Consent32.7+1.7
14. Cost of implementation32.7−1.8
15. Selective pregnancy termination32.7−5.2
16. What conditions to test30.6+8.2
17. Increased number of terminated pregnancies30.6−0.4
18. Conflicts of interest linked to commercialization28.6−2.4
19. Misperceptions of the reliability testing28.6−11.1
20. Existence of adequate policies28.6−5.9
21. Respect of human rights26.5−4.5
22. Access-related issues24.5−1.4
23. Increased anxiety for prospective parents18.4−7.5
24. Conflict with religious values14.3+2.2
25. Assigning responsibility to care for the child8.2−0.4
26. Utility of the test8.2−12.5
27. Confidentiality of the results2.0−13.5
1. Informed decision-making81.6+2.3
2. Evidence-based decision-making59.2+8.9
3. Respect for human dignity53.1+2.3
4. Equitable access51.0+7.9
5. Free choice51.0−0.7
6. Fair resource allocation46.9+0.3
7. Respect for diversity44.9+1.8
8. Solidarity with people living with the tested conditions44.9−10.3
9. Human rights40.8+0.6
10. Equality between persons38.8+6
11. Nonmaleficence (do not harm)36.7−6.4
12. Autonomy30.6−7.3
13. Protection of privacy28.6−5.9
14. Sanctity of life28.6+4.5
15. Inclusiveness22.4−6.9
16. Beneficence18.4−5.7