Table 1: Estimated risks with decreased consumption of vegetables and fruit and latency periods for calculating population attributable risks
Cancer siteSexRR estimateUnits 
g/d
Risk per g/dSourceLatency period, yr (CCHS cycle)
Vegetable
Oral cavity and pharynxAll0.89400.00291Boeing 2006*204-5  (2007/2008)
Oral cavity and pharynxMen0.83400.00466Boeing 2006*204-5 (2007/2008)
Oral cavity and pharynxWomen0.93400.00181Boeing 2006*204-5 (2007/2008)
LarynxAll0.921000.000834Riboli 2003†264-5 (2007/2008)
EsophagusAll0.87500.00279WCRF 2007‡17 (2005)
StomachAll0.701000.00357WCRF 2007‡18 (2004)
StomachMen0.701000.00357WCRF 2007‡18 (2004)
StomachWomen0.771000.00261WCRF 2007‡18 (2004)
Fruit
Oral cavity and pharynxAll0.97400.000761Boeing 2006*204-5 (2007/2008)
Oral cavity and pharynxMen0.96400.00102Boeing 2006*204-5 (2007/2008)
Oral cavity and pharynxWomen0.98400.00051Boeing 2006*204-5 (2007/2008)
LarynxAll0.731000.00315Riboli 2003†264-5 (2007/2008)
EsophagusAll0.561000.00580WCRF 2007‡19 (2003)
StomachAll0.951000.000513WCRF 2007‡19 (2003)
LungAll0.935800.00084WCRF 2007‡19 (2003)

Note: CCHS = Canadian Community Health Survey, RR = relative risk.

*Data obtained from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition among 345 904 participants who completed a dietary questionnaire from 1992 to 1998; RRs were obtained using 2 182 560 person-years of follow-up with 352 histologically confirmed incident cases of squamous cell cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and esophagus.

†Meta-analysis of 8 case-control studies on laryngeal cancer published between January 1973 and June 2001.

‡Systematic review and meta-analysis included in report from the World Cancer Research Fund, an international collaborative group.