Table 1: Summary of 27 deaths associated with the use of paramethoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) in Alberta and British Columbia, June 2011 to April 2012
CaseLocation and circumstances
around presentation and death
Drug(s) believed to have been consumedPostmortem findings
 1Took drugs at home; became unwell, friend called 911; died in EREcstasyPulmonary edema, CAD
 2Took ecstasy alone; found 9 hours later; died in ER after unsuccessful resuscitationEcstasyRapid rigor mortis
 3Took pills alone, felt unwell and self-presented to ER; died in ICUEcstasyCerebral edema, pulmonary edema
 4Took ecstasy with friends; became unresponsive; transported to ER in private vehicle; died in ICUEcstasyCerebral edema, ascites, pleural effusion
 5At house party after taking drugs; became unresponsive; transported to hospital via EMS; died in ICUEcstasyRhabdomyolysis
 6Found unresponsive at house party; transported to hospital via EMS; had cardiac arrest, died in ICUEcstasy, alcoholNo autopsy
 7At house party; found unresponsive after last seen 1.5 hours earlier; transported to hospital via EMS, had cardiac arrest; died in ICUEcstasyNo autopsy
 8Found dead in bed at homeUnknownTrivial soft-tissue abrasions
 9At house party with friends; became unwell; cardiac arrest after intubation with EMS; died in ICU8 tabs of ecstasyLung congestion, patchy pneumonia
10Watching live performance; became unwell; cardiac arrest with EMS; died in ER after unsuccessful resuscitation1–2 g of MDMA, cocaineCardiomegaly, spleen congestion
11At nightclub; became unwell; transported to ER in private vehicle; died in ICU6 tablets of MDMA, hallucinogenic mushrooms, LSDNo autopsy
12Found dead at homeUnknownPulmonary congestion, cerebral edema, mottled myocardium, cardiomegaly
13Friend noticed patient acting abnormally; transported to hospital in private vehicle after seizure; died in ER2 snorts of MDMA/ecstasy powderCongestion of heart, lungs and liver
14Took drugs at house party; found unconscious outside at nearby property; died in ER after unsuccessful resuscitationUnknown amount of white powder believed to be ecstasyCongestion of heart, lungs, liver and spleen, cerebral edema
15At a bar with friends; that night at home had a witnessed seizure, followed by cardiac arrest; pronounced dead upon EMS arrivalUnknownPulmonary edema, congestion of heart, liver and spleen, cerebral edema
16Took 2 doses of ecstasy at bar; began acting strange upon return home with friends; had seizure en route to hospital with EMS, and cardiac arrest in ER; died in ER after unsuccessful resuscitation2 pills of ecstasyPulmonary edema, kidney and spleen congestion, interstitial hemorrhage in heart
17At home with friends drinking and taking drugs; found dead the next morningCocaine, MDMA, alcoholFatty liver, unremarkable post mortem
18At a house party; felt unwell, called 911; cardiac arrest soon after EMS arrival; died in ER after unsuccessful resuscitationUnknown white powder snortedRib and sternal fractures, pulmonary edema, advanced cirrhosis, enlarged spleen
19Took MDMA powder the night before; felt unwell; found unresponsive the next afternoon; pronounced dead with EMS1.5 g of MDMA rolled in paper and ingestedCerebral and pulmonary edema
20Took drugs throughout the night at home; had cardiac arrest; died in ER after unsuccessful resuscitationMDMA, cocainePulmonary congestion, cardiomegaly, nephrosclerosis
21At party the night before with friends; found dead at home the next dayEcstasy, cocaineEdema and congestion of lungs, liver, spleen and kidneys
22Last seen 3 days earlier; police/EMS attended; pronounced dead at the sceneUnknownPulmonary congestion
23Partying with friends the night before; no history of drug use; found dead the next dayUnknownPulmonary edema
24Last seen 3 days prior. Police/EMS attended, dead on scene.Cocaine, alcoholCongestion of lung, liver, spleen and kidneys
25At house party; took multiple doses of MDMA through the night by snorting and ingestion; became confused and unresponsive; friends called 911; died in ER after unsuccessful resuscitation0.5 g of MDMAPulmonary congestion
26At party with friends; EMS called; cardiac arrest after intubation; resuscitated in ER, died in ICU7 tabs of MDMANo autopsy
27At concert; took drugs and alcohol; pronounced dead at home with EMSMDMA, cocaine, alcoholNo autopsy

Note: CAD = coronary artery disease, EMS = emergency medical services, ER = emergency department, ICU = intensive care unit, LSD = lysergic acid diethylamide, MDMA = methylenedioxymethamphetamine.