Table 4: Overall and subgroup analyses for primary and secondary outcomes
Outcome; group or subgroupMeta-analysis, mean difference (95% CI)Statistical heterogeneity (within-group) Test for between-group differences No. participantsNo. of studiesGRADE quality of evidence*
p valueI2 value, %p valueI2 value, %
Change in body mass index (kg/m2) (baseline to immediate post)
Overall–1.12(–1.52 to –0.72)< 0.0000192NA310021Moderate
Behavioural–1.15(–1.59 to –0.72)< 0.00001930.2910.4253819Moderate
Pharmacological + Behavioural–0.86(–1.19 to –0.52)0.8105622Moderate
Change in systolic blood pressure (mmHg) (baseline to immediate post)
Overall–3.42(–6.65 to –0.29)0.00375NA8085Moderate
Change in diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) (baseline to immediate post)
Overall–3.39(–5.17 to –1.60)0.1147NA8085Moderate
Change in total cholesterol (mmol/L) (baseline to immediate post)
Overall–0.06(–0.19 to 0.07)0.03, 63NA9045Low
Change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mmol/L) (baseline to immediate post)
Overall0.01(–0.11 to 0.13)0.00970NA9045Low
Change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mmol/L) (baseline to immediate post)
Overall–0.02(–0.05 to 0.01)0.1637NA9716Low
Change in triglycerides (mmol/L) (baseline to immediate post)
Overall–0.02(–0.12 to 0.09)0.1935NA9375Low
Change in fasting glucose (mmol/L) (baseline to immediate post)
Overall0.06(–0.29 to 0.17)NANA5281Low
Change in overall quality of life (pediatric quality of life inventory or DISABKIDS questionnaire) (baseline to immediate post)
Overall2.10(0.60 to 3.60)0.378NA7776Moderate
Note: GRADE =Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation.
*Rating reflects confidence in the estimate of effect assessed through 5 domains of the evidence (risk of bias, indirectness, imprecision, inconsistency and reporting bias) as follows: high = no downgrades, moderate = downgraded for risk of bias, low = downgraded for risk of bias and imprecision, very low = downgraded for very serious risk of bias (double downgrade) and imprecision.