Table 3: Effect of weight-maintenance interventions on continuous weight outcomes
Outcome; intervention typeMeta-analysis,
MD (95% CI)
Statistical heterogeneity (within-group),
p value (I2 value, %)
Test for between-group differences,
p value (I2 value, %)
No. of participantsNo. of studiesQuality of evidence rating*
Maintenance of weight, kg
Overall–1.44 (–2.42 to –0.47)0.010 (67)NA23866Moderate
Behavioural–1.56 (–3.10 to –0.02)0.10 (63)0.88 (0)12152Moderate
Pharmacological + behavioural–1.39 (–2.86 to 0.08)0.006 (76)11714Low
Maintenance of BMI, kg/m2
Behavioural–0.95 (–1.67 to –0.23)NANA2341Moderate
Maintenance of waist circumference, cm
Pharmacological + behavioural–2.30 (–3.45 to –1.15)NANa3091Moderate

Note: BMI = body mass index, MD = mean difference, NA = not applicable.
*Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) quality of evidence rating reflects confidence in the estimate of effect assessed through 5 domains of the evidence (risk of bias, indirectness, imprecision, inconsistency and reporting bias): moderate = downgraded for risk of bias, low = downgraded for risk of bias and imprecision.