Table 1: Effects of age, sex, location of residence and socioeconomic status on the incidence of benzodiazepine and Z-drug (zopiclone and zaleplon) use in Manitoba, 1996–2012
VariableDrug use; relative rate*
Benzodiazepines and Z-drugs overallBenzodiazepines aloneZ-drugs alone
Users per 1000 population
Change in annual rate1.00 0.99†1.06†
  18–64 v. ≥ 650.65†0.70†0.56†
  0–17 v. ≥ 650.06†0.07†0.02†
Sex, male v. female0.70†0.69†0.72†
Location, rural v. urban1.070.910.93
Socioeconomic status
  High v. low0.970.931.10†
  Not found‡ v. low1.21†1.32†0.85

*Unless states otherwise. Relative rates were adjusted for age, socioeconomic status, region and sex.
†Significant effect (p < 0.05).
‡Includes people to whom a neighbourhood income could not be assigned, i.e., residents of personal care homes, psychiatric facilities and prisons as well as wards of the public trustee and Child and Family Services.